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High-Performance Institute

The High Performance IndicatorTM (often called the "HPI," "HPI-II" or "HP-36") is a professional performance scale used to measure the factors that matter most in predicting individual high performance, as defined as long-term success. Over 100 human performance variables are analyzed in six key categories that were proven to relate to a person’s long-term success potential in the largest and most comprehensive high performance studies ever conducted. The scale was developed by Brendon Burchard, High Performance Institute researchers and graduates from the Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) program at the University of Pennsylvania. Based on research and proven performance improvement methods, the HPI is the world's first validated assessment on high performance created and backed by a high performance coach with over a decade in the field. The HPI has proven to strongly correlate with external measures of success (sales performance, academic GPA performance, executive promotion odds, business unit financial success) and important life outcomes like happiness, health, positive relationships, and confidence. 

Measuring High Performance: The High Performance Indicator Development and Validation

The desire to maximize potential and performance is one of the greatest motivators of the human spirit. Philosophers, scientists, and personal development leaders have long sought to understand the attitudes, behaviors, and traits that enable people to excel, succeed over the long term, and make the most of their lives. However, despite their mutual interest in the topic, little has been done to synthesize efforts across fields. Under the direction of Brendon Burchard, scientists and high performance coaches at High Performance Institute collaborated to create an assessment that measures the habits that lead to long-term success across domains. The assessment, called the High Performance Indicator (HPI), is comprised of six subscales that separately measure clarity, energy, necessity, productivity, influence, and courage. Two studies with a total of 174,054 participants, showed that the HPI was predictive of several important life outcomes. In Study 1, the HPI was predictive of happiness (r = .58), confidence (r = .67), income (rs = .137), perceived excellence, (r = .50) and perceived success in comparison to peers to over the long term (r = .67, p < .001). However, the internal consistency and dimensionality of HPI subscales in Study 1 could be improved due to some unclear questions and overlapping items. In Study 2, modified HPI items showed a high-level of internal consistency for each subscale (Cronbach’s α’s from .74 to .87), and a latent dimensionality that reflected six unique constructs. Similar to Study 1, HPI scores in Study 2 were predictive of important life outcomes, such as life satisfaction (r = .62), quality of interpersonal relationships (r = .22), work quality (r = .60), career impact (r = .58), and income (rs = .23). Subsequent analysis of of n = 109 attendees of High Performance Academy provided evidence that these habits could be substantially enhanced through high performance training (d = 1.04).
Excellence is an art won by training and habituation. We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but we rather have those because we have acted rightly. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit. (Aristotle)High Performance Institute seeks to provide its clients and students with the most effective strategies, tools and training for professional effectiveness and personal development. As a first step in our mission of bringing more scientific rigor into the process of personal transformation, we have conducted what is, to our knowledge, the largest high performance study of all time (N = 174,054). Our goal was to develop a reliable and valid assessment tool that helps scientists, organizations, coaches, and individuals identify and measure the “high performance habits” that predict success over the long-term.Traditionally, personal development leaders and psychological researchers have had diverging goals and approaches. Psychologists have often argued that personal development programs use “a gallon of clinical lore but only a teaspoon of research.” 1; e.g. 2,3, 4 Meanwhile, personal 
development leaders have argued that psychology research remains conceptual or moves at a “glacial” pace, which hinders its ability for practical application.5In the last two decades, however, psychology research and personal development literature have grown more aligned. Since the advent of positive psychology, researchers have placed an increased emphasis on developing interventions that help people cultivate the best that life has to offer.6 This objective is more aligned with personal development than traditional psychology research, which has often focused on treating mental disorder.7 Over a similar period, personal development leaders have begun relying more on science to inform their message. The recent market success of science/self-help hybrid books,e.g. 8,9,10 is demonstrative of an increased demand for research-based personal development advice—a trend which industry experts anticipate to continue to grow in the future.11Unfortunately, even though psychology researchers and personal development leaders have grown more aligned in their objectives, collaboration between the fields remains limited. This lack of collaboration has at least two consequences. First, 
when personal development leaders ignore scientific research, they increase the likelihood that their programs will promote ineffective practices. And, in cases of flagrant ignorance, irresponsible leaders risk harming the well-being and health of their followers.e.g. 12 Second, when scientists ignore strategies and common sense ideas from the real-world, they can waste time, energy, and resources attempting to solve problems or answer questions that have obvious solutions.13As a point of interest, it is worth noting the temporal relationship between innovation in the personal development industry and psychological science. Between the two, it seems that personal development leaders are usually the first to innovate. For example, in the early 1980’s, Tony Robbins taught his audience to expand their posture in order to change their emotional state.14, 5 Twenty-eight years later, Carney, Cuddy, and Yap,15 published a paper in Psychological Science in support of a similar strategy called “power posing.” In 1937, Napoleon Hill encouraged his followers to interpret setbacks as “temporary defeats” rather than permanent failures.16 Forty- one years later, Abramson, Seligman, and Teasdale17 published an article in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology arguing that interpreting adversity as a “temporary” occurrence increases individual resilience. Loving-kindness meditation, or “MettaĚ„,” was developed before the time of Buddha.18 Roughly 2500 years later, Fredrickson and colleagues19 published a paper showing that loving-kindness meditation leads to an array of mental and physical health benefits.The seed of these scientific breakthroughs did not originate in the laboratory. Rather, the strategies validated in these studies were developed and iterated upon in real-world settings, by individuals searching for ways to improve their lives. Because the personal development audiences constantly demand new approaches to individual transformation, and pay for them, personal development leaders are often the first to innovate. Psychological scientists, on the other hand, are often the first to validate, because their field is driven by the need to establish empirical proof for its claims. These different objectives—innovation and validation—each require their own set of attitudes, questions, and methods. Each can play an equally important, complementary role in promoting personal transformation.The attitude of mind for discovery is different from that needed for proof.20Development of the High Performance FrameworkDefining high performance and the scope of our research.As opposed to “expertise” which is defined as the ability to reproducibly exhibit superior performance in a particular field,21 we define “high performance” as consistently succeeding beyond standard norms across domains while maintaining life satisfaction, wellbeing and positive relationships.22 Our research is focused on understanding,  
measuring, and developing specific strategies that lead to success in many areas in life. We ask, “Why do some people succeed in some external measures but end up feeling burned out, unfulfilled and alone? Why are others capable of succeeding to the same or greater degree and yet do not compromise their health, happiness or relationships? What’s the difference?”Historically, self-regulation, or “willpower”, has been the most studied personality trait associated with high performance. It reliably predicts physical health, income, emotional wellness, academic success and many other important outcomes across the lifespan.23,24 However, we argue that willpower alone is not enough to enduringly perform at peak levels across multiple life contexts. Willpower can be directed toward many things and, we believe, is most beneficial when it systematically directed toward specific habits that lead to long-term success.Rather than focusing on overarching personality traits, HPI seeks to study the habit patterns that lead to long-term success. What habits, executed daily, lead to enduring high performance and overall life satisfaction? What behaviors and activities should people prioritize most, when deciding how to marshal their willpower? These questions guided a decades-long qualitative study by Brendon Burchard, CEO of High Performance Institute, that eventually produced HPI’s current framework for high performance.Identifying the high performance habits. For more than a decade leading up to the current investigation, Burchard, along with several coaches, employees and organizational consultants of High Performance Institute, collected and analyzed data from over 1.6 million high performance clients and online personal development students in 195 countries. This data included results from coaching interventions with thousands of individual clients, detailed pre- and post assessments from tens of thousands of live-workshop attendees over a decade of events, and hundreds of thousands of codified comments from Burchard’s online personal development courses or free online training videos, which have received more than 15 million hours of viewing time. Data was also collected from semi-structured interviews with hundreds of elite performers at the top of their field in business, entertainment, athletics, and other domains. Additionally, Burchard and colleagues consulted thousands of articles from the scientific literature on high performance from the last 70 years. Cumulatively, this extensive qualitative research led to the identification of six crucial deliberate habits for reaching high performance in any field or endeavor: seeking clarity, generating energy, raising necessity, increasing productivity, developing influence, and demonstrating courage. Each of these habits was found to be learnable and deployable across multiple contexts of life and career with a similar result: the achievement of long-term success while maintaining well- being and positive relationships.  
High Performance Habits. As traditionally conceived, habits are created over time as a specific cue starts to trigger a specific action automatically.25 However, many of the habits that matter most for improving performance do not fit this narrow definition. Many habits don’t necessarily become automatic or easier with time. This is partially because greater success in life and business is often accompanied by new challenges. This means that many high performance habits are “deliberate habits.” These must be consciously chosen, performed intentionally, and continually practiced. Each of the following habits, we believe, is a deliberate habit—amenable to improvement through consistent, focused effort.

Seek Clarity:

High performers actively seek clarity on who they want to be, what they want to accomplish, and how they will achieve it. They are clear about their goals and passions. They have a clear vision of what they will achieve in life and how they will do it. High performers consistently seek clarity as times change and as they take on new projects or enter new social situations.

Generate Energy:

High performers generate energy so that they can maintain consistent focus and effort throughout each day. They actively care for their bodies and minds to ensure that they can sustain high levels of energy over the long- term. This translates into greater physical energy, mental stamina, and positive emotions.

Raise Necessity:

High performers experience a necessity for exceptional performance. They tap into the reasons why they absolutely must perform well, which produces a powerful drive to work hard and succeed. By combining both internal standards (e.g., identity, beliefs, values, or expectations for excellence) and external demands (e.g., social obligations, competition, public commitments, deadlines), they sustain a high level of motivation.

Increase Productivity:

High performers spend their time working on the things that matter. This allows them to consistently produce outputs that truly count. They shield their attention from distractions and opportunities that would pull them away from what matters most. This allows them to stay productive day in and day out.

Develop Influence:

High performers develop influence with the people around them. They learn how to get people to believe in and support their efforts and aspirations. By demonstrating strong leadership and being able to persuade people to contribute to important projects, they are able to make the major achievements that require a positive support network.

Demonstrate Courage:

High performers demonstrate courage by expressing their ideas, taking bold action, and standing up for themselves and others. They do what they think is right even in the face of fear, uncertainty, threat, or changing conditions. Rather than viewing courage as an occasional act, it is treated as a consistent and deliberate choice.
The Present ResearchThe current investigation is a collaboration between High Performance Institute and social scientists at the University of California Santa Barbara and the University of Pennsylvania. As described, the overall framework for high performance, and the habits that support it, were developed by Brendon Burchard and his team. From this initial framework, Burchard and his collaborators began an iterative process of creating and validating a high performance scale that reliably measures the habit constructs and their relationship to important life and career outcomes. This report outlines our findings and progress in developing The High Performance Indicator (HPI) thus far.Study 1Study 1 was a cross-sectional study for which the major purpose was to validate The High Performance Indicator (HPI). Validation of the HPI was organized around three subgoals. The first was to assess the HPI’s factor structure and determine whether the instrument’s question items correspond to six distinct constructs as initially conceived. The second objective was to evaluate whether the items assessing each distinct habit have sufficiently high inter-item reliability to provide a valid assessment of each construct. Third, the criterion validity of the HPI was assessed by examining whether overall HPI scores predicted important life outcomes related to high performance (e.g. happiness, confidence, duration of success, education, and work quality).MethodSample. TheHighPerformanceInstitutepostedonvarious social media platforms (primarily Facebook and Instagram), and sent emails to its existing mailing list, inviting people to take a free survey “related to long-term success.” Individuals who clicked on the invitation were then redirected to an online survey page in Qualtrics, where they completed the HPI assessment, as well as several other self-report items. There were 192,845 survey entries. From this initial pool, we excluded 16,273 participants who did not finish the survey, as well as 3,828 duplicate entries. The final sample (N = 173,183) was comprised of adults who were 59% female and 69% White. Sixty-nine percent of the sample were between 21 and 49 years old (See Table 2). It is worth noting that this was a particularly educated participant pool, with 60% of participants completing a four-year college degree (US avg = 33.4%), and 34% of participants completing a graduate degree (US avg = 9.3%].26The High Performance Indicator. Based on Burchard’s qualitative research, investigators defined an a priori 6-factor structure. Six items were used for each high performance habit subscale, totaling 36 items for the entire scale. Each item was answered using a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 = “Not like me at all” to 5 = “Very much like me.”
Outcome items. The concurrent validity of the HPI was assessed using a variety of self-report measures of outcomes relevant to career success and personal development audiences. These items included measurements of happiness (“I’m happy with my life overall”), confidence (“I’m confident that I can achieve my goals despite resistance”), perceived excellence in performance (“l do things with more excellence than my peers”), higher levels of lifetime schooling (adjusting for age), and an index of perceived success in comparison to peers (see table 3 for items).
 
 
 

Study 2

In Study 2, we sought to improve upon the reliability and validity of the HPI by developing several new items, and testing overall factor structure, reliability, and validity of the scale. In addition, we recruited a more nationally representative sample so that results could be generalized beyond traditional personal development audiences.
Our first objective was to create a shorter, face-valid set of items for each HPI habit (see Table 6), and assess whether the new instrument’s items cluster into six distinct constructs as hypothesized. The second objective was to evaluate whether the new instrument items assessing each distinct habit have sufficiently high inter-item reliability to provide a valid assessment of that construct. Third, the convergent validity of each of the six HPI subscales were evaluated through association to existing validated measures of related constructs. Here the objective was to test whether the six HPI subscales measured the intended psychological construct. Fourth, the predictive utility of the HPI was assessed by examining whether overall HPI scores predicted important life outcomes related to high performance (e.g. happiness, career impact, and income).MethodSample. A nationally representative sample of U.S. adults was recruited based on four demographic variables: age, gender, income, and geographical location (Table 7). Participants were recruited via Qualtrics Online Samples. Only participants who completed the online assessment in accordance with two quality control criteria were included. The first criterion was an attention check question: “I am actually reading these survey questions rather than just making up answers.” Only data from participants who indicated “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” were included. The second criterion was a speed check. The median time it took to complete the survey during the soft launch was 26.9 minutes. All participants who completed the survey in less than one-third the median time (9.0 minutes) were automatically excluded. Data was collected from 880 participants who passed these criteria. Data from nine 
respondents were excluded for inaccurate responding based on their providing implausible answers to the height and weight questions (e.g. 4’0” tall and 350 pounds). The final sample comprised 871 participants.Measures. To assess the convergent validity of each of the six HPI subscales, participants completed a series of validated questionnaires measuring similar constructs. Two existing questionnaires were included for each of the six habits. Additionally, several outcome measures were included to assess the concurrent validity of the HPI. These outcome 
measures included both validated questionnaires and objective measures of level of education, income, and body mass index. Self-Concept Clarity. This twelve-item scale measuresself-awareness and stability.27 It was included to assess convergent validity with the clarity subscale. Sample items include, “In general, I have a clear sense of who I am and what I am” and “I spend a lot of time wondering about what kind of person I really am” (reverse scored).Purpose in Life. This nine-item measure assesses the degree to which a person feels like their goals, plans, and activities align with what they want in their future.28 It was included to assess convergent validity with the clarity subscale. Sample items include: “Some people wander aimlessly through life but I am not one of them” and “I enjoy making plans for the future and working to make them a reality.”Physical Energy. This five-item measure assesses the degree to which one has felt fatigued versus full of energy over the last month.29 It was included to assess convergent validity with the energy subscale. Participants were instructed to think back over the last four weeks and report how much time they spent feeling various ways. Sample items include: “Did you feel full of pep?” and “Did you feel worn out?” (reverse scored).Liveliness. This ten-item measure examines vibrancy and stamina.30 It was included to assess convergent validity with the energy subscale. Sample items include: “I maintain high energy throughout the day” and “I feel healthy and vibrant most of the time.”Achievement Striving. This seven-item scale assesses the degree to which one works passionately and with high standards.30 It was included to assess convergent validity with the necessity subscale. Sample items include: “I plunge into tasks with all my heart” and “I do more than what’s expected of me.”
Competitive Drive. This six-item scale measures one’s drive to take on new challenges.30 It was included to assess convergent validity with the necessity subscale. Sample items include: “I accept challenging tasks” and “I am not highly motivated to succeed” (reverse scored).Diligence. Thisten-itemquestionnaireassessesthedegree to which one works diligently and successfully.30 It was included to assess convergent validity with the productivity subscale. Sample items include: “I get started quickly on doing a job” and “I complete tasks successfully.”Industriousness & Perseverance. This eight-item measure examines persistence and the tendency to finish entire tasks.30 It was included to assess convergent validity with the productivity subscale. Sample items include: “I finish things despite obstacles in the way” and “I don’t get sidetracked when I work.”Social Skills. This seven-item measure assesses sociability and interpersonal skills.31 It was included to assess convergent validity with the influence subscale. Participants responded to items such as, “I find it easy to put myself in the 
position of others” and “in social situations, it is always clear to me exactly what to say and do.”Leadership. This seven-item measure assesses one’s leadership ability.31 It was included to assess convergent validity with the influence subscale. Participants responded to items such as, “I am told that I am a strong but fair leader” and “I am not good at taking charge of a group” (reverse scored).Courage. This six-item measure is an abbreviated version of Norton and Weiss’s 2009 Courage Scale which examines valor in the face of one’s fears.32 It was included to assess convergent validity with the courage subscale. Participants responded to items such as, “I tend to face my fears” and “If there is an important reason to face something that scares me, I will face it.”Bravery. This ten-item measure examines bravery and was included to further assess convergent validity with the courage subscale.32 Participants responded to items such as, “I 
am a brave person” and “I avoid dealing with uncomfortable situations” (reverse scored).Life Satisfaction. This five-item measure assesses well- being with respect to one’s overall satisfaction with life.33 Participants responded to items such as, “In most ways my life is close to my ideal” and “If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing.”Positive Relationships. This nine-item Positive Relations with Others Scale is a subscale of a more general well-being measure,28 and it specifically examines the degree to which someone has strong interpersonal connections. Sample items include: “I know that I can trust my friends, and they know they can trust me” and “I have not experienced many warm and trusting relationships with others” (reverse scored).Work Quality. This three-item measure is a subscale of a longer questionnaire assessing subjective career success.34 Specifically, it examines the degree to which an individual produces high quality work. Sample items include: “I have met the highest standards of quality in my work” and “I have been known for the high quality of my work.”Career Impact. This three-item measure is also a subscale of the longer questionnaire assessing subjective career success.34 It assesses the degree to which an individual believes their work matters to the world. Participants responded to items such as, “I think my work has been meaningful” and “The work I have done has contributed to society.”Income. Participants were also asked about their total household income. Options included (1) $0 - $25,000, (2) $25,000 - $50,000, (3) $50,000 - $75,000, (4) $75,000 - $100,000, (5) $100,000 - $150,000, (6) $150,000 - $200,000, or (7) $200,000+.Education. Participants were asked to indicate their highest level of education. Options included (1) less than high school diploma, (2) high school diploma/GED, (3) some college (no degree), (4) associate’s degree, (5) bachelor’s degree, or (6) graduate degree.Body Mass Index (BMI). As a proxy for physical health, participants were asked their height and weight so that a BMI score could be calculated for each individual. Inches and pounds were converted to meters and kilograms. Kilograms were then divided by meters squared.ResultsFactor analysis. The dimensionality of the HPI was evaluated using principal component analysis with varimax rotation. Consistent with the high performance framework, researchers defined an a priori 6-factor structure. The six factors cumulatively explained 51.78% of the variance. All items loaded on the correct factor with a loading of at least .40 (Table 8). Additionally, no items loaded above .40 on other factors. These results confirmed that the habits represent six distinct dimensions. 
Reliability. AsshowninTable9,eachsubscalewashighly reliable, particularly for 3-item subscales given that reliability estimates tend to become larger as the number of items increases.. As mentioned in Study 1, a Cronbach’s alpha score of > .70 is important because it indicates that questions are measuring the same construct.Convergent validity. In order to assess the convergent validity of the HPI subscales, we first calculated composite scores for each habit. Higher scores on the 1-6 scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) indicate a greater presence of the habit. Two validated scales for each habit were administered to assess the extent to which the HPI subscale scores correlated with similar constructs. Initial analyses first confirmed that all of the previously validated scales had sufficient inter-item reliability with the current sample. Descriptive results for these twelve measures are provided in Table 10. Next, we assessed the correlation between each validated questionnaire and its corresponding high performance habit subscale. Moderately strong correlations (e.g. correlation coefficients of r = .30 to .70) indicate good convergent validity, providing evidence that the instrument successfully measures the intended construct. Extremely high correlations (e.g. > .80) are not necessary since the measures are tapping into similar but not identical psychological constructs.The Energy subscale correlated with both Physical Energy (r = .61 ,p< .001) and Liveliness (r = .77, p < .001). The Necessity subscale correlated with both Achievement Striving (r = .73, p < .001) and Competitive Drive (r = .33, p < .001). The Productivity subscale correlated with both Diligence (r = .41, p < .001) and Industriousness and Perseverance (r = .48, p < .001). The Influence subscale correlated with both Social Skills (r = .76, p < .001) and Leadership (r = .44, p < .001). The Courage subscale correlated with both Courage (r = .66, p < .001) and Bravery (r = .50, p < .001). Collectively, these results provide strong evidence for the convergent validity of these five subscales.The Clarity subscale correlated with Purpose in Life (r = .29, p < .001), but it did not correlate with Self-Concept Clarity (r = .05, p = .15). The first correlation with Purpose in Life offers moderate evidence for the convergent validity of the Clarity subscale. The absence of a positive correlation with the Self-Concept Clarity scale may be due to that instrument’s emphasis on the stability of the self-concept over time, or perhaps the assumption that reflecting on oneself is a signal of low clarity. In contrast, the Clarity subscale of the HPI emphasizes that high performers consistently seek evolving clarity as times change and as they take on new projects or enter new social situations. Future research could administer other validated scales that are more conceptually similar to the construct of clarity as conceived by the HPI in order to further test this subscale’s convergent validity.HPI construct validity. The next step was to assess the appropriateness of creating an HPI composite score that averaged across the six subscales.  
Although each subscale measures a distinct construct, these six habits were conceived as complementary components of the broader construct of high performance. Accordingly, we evaluated the inter-construct reliability across the six habits. Reliability was operationalized as the inter-construct correlations across the subscales. Following established standards for interpreting these correlations (35), these findings support the integration of the six habits into one overall High Performance Indicator score (Fisher Adjusted Mean r = .64, Min = .55, Max = .72, Table 11). Descriptive statistics for the six habits are included in Table 11.

General Discussion

The High Performance Indicator (HPI) is an assessment tool that is designed to measure six habits thought to underlie high performance: clarity, energy, necessity, productivity, influence, and courage. The present findings indicate that the HPI’s factor structure is consistent with the instrument’s intention to measure these six distinct constructs. Each subscale of the HPI demonstrated good inter-item reliability (αs from .74 to .87) and convergent validity with existing measures of related construct (rs from .29 to .77). Finally, overall scores on the HPI uniquely predicted variance in important life outcomes such as happiness (34.3%) quality of interpersonal relationships (9.9%), career impact (37.2%), and work quality (39.8%). The HPI was also significantly correlated with income (rs = .23). Collectively, these findings provide evidence that the HPI is a reliable and valid measure of six distinct but complementary high performance habits.
Many leaders in the field of personal development promise that their programs will lead to positive change. However, devoid of a valid measurement tool, claims about improvement cannot be substantiated. Frameworks or theories that rely on 
anecdotes, rather than data, should be viewed with skepticism. Without reliable measurement, our understanding of any concept lacks precision. In the words of Lord Kelvin,When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the stages of science, whatever the matter may be. 36The HPI measures high performance habits in trackable, reliable numbers—advancing the High Performance Habits framework beyond the scope of mere advice, into the realm of science.Used intelligently, the HPI may help people to better understand high performance across a variety of life domains. Unlike traditional measures of achievement, the HPI was conceptually designed to measure qualities that lead to, rather than reflect, high performance. In management science, outcome measures are called “lagging indicators” because, by the time an outcome is measured, the actions that led to the outcome have already taken place.37 Leading indicators, on the 
other hand, provide useful information about the attitudes and behaviors that produce success. Although more empirical work needs to be done to establish a causal link between each high performance habit and important outcome measures, the current investigation provides suggestive evidence that changing behavior on these habits may lead to positive outcomes.Practical Application of the HPIThe HPI can be used both as a summative and formative measurement tool. It is summative in that it provides a reliable sense of how people are performing across each high performance habit. It is formative in the sense that it can help identify areas of weakness and help them create plans to develop better habits. These benefits may be particularly useful to individuals, coaches, and organizations who are seeking to enhance performance in behaviorally measurable ways.Individuals can use the HPI as a self-monitoring tool. Since the eighteenth century, at least, personal development leaders have recognized the benefit of regularly measuring one’s behavior in relation to goals.38 More recently, social scientists have demonstrated the extensive motivational and behavioral benefits associated with self-monitoring. e.g. 39,40,41 For example, self-monitoring makes one more likely to seek out information that can benefit them,42,43 and more likely to live in alignment with personal standards for health,44 work ethic,45 and morality.46,47 Consistent with this vast body of literature, we argue the the HPI may be profitably used by those who wish to track and improve their personal high performance.The HPI is also a highly useful tool for high performance coaches. Coaches can utilize the HPI in at least three ways: First, they can give their clients the HPI as a self-assessment tool, enabling them to reap the aforementioned benefits of self- monitoring. Second, coaches who use the HPI will have greater insight into their clients unique needs. Numerous studies conducted with clinical psychologists have found that client outcomes are improved when clinicians use valid measurement tools.48 Conversely, when measurement tools are not utilized, therapists significantly underestimate the number of clients whose conditions will deteriorate.49 Although there are important differences between clinical psychotherapy and high performance coaching, it seems likely that the benefits of data- driven client assessment would translate across both fields. The third way coaches can use the HPI is as a feedback mechanism for their own effectiveness. Feedback is essential to the development of expertise in a wide array of domains.e.g. 50,51,52 It is likely that this same pattern would hold true for coaches. The more coaches know about the effectiveness of their strategies, the better they will be able to adjust and optimize their sessions.Finally, organizations may benefit from using the HPI, as it correlates with important workplace objectives like quality of work and career impact. Though we do not suggest that the 
HPI be used as a hiring tool (because self-report measures are often faked in high stakes contexts), there are several other contexts in which it may be helpful for employee development and organizational effectiveness. For example, when taken anonymously, or in other ways that are deemed “no-risk” for employees, the HPI can be used to measure behaviors associated with habits that improve relationships and employee effectiveness. Executives and managers can use the HPI to gain a better “pulse” of the organization and whether or not individual efforts are leading to long-term success. Measured over time, the HPI can help leaders track the degree to which different initiatives positively or negatively impact the high performance of employees. Additionally, the HPI can help managers identify areas of strength and weakness in their teams, and may provide clues to help them enhance employee behavior for better long-term results.Limitations and Future DirectionsThere are several limitations to the current investigation. First, even though clarity, energy, necessity, productivity, influence, and courage emerged as the most common high performance habits in our qualitative analysis, it is possible that there are other, equally impactful behaviors. In the future we will conduct research to learn whether other habits should be included in the high performance framework. Second, because these analyses were correlational, rather than experimental or longitudinal, evidence about the causality of the high performance habits on success is suggestive rather than confirmatory. In the future, we intend to conduct both longitudinal and experimental studies to learn the degree to which different high performance habits lead to specific success outcomes. Third, though we have considerable qualitative data showing that these habits are malleable, we currently have limited empirical evidence demonstrating that people can improve across the six HPI measures. However, it is worth noting that the High Performance Institute is currently undergoing several investigations to ascertain the degree to which its programs and products improve our students’ overall high performance. One preliminary study has already been completed, and results indicate that each high performance habit can be substantially enhanced by attending training events or seminars. Further information on this report is available in supplementary materials.ConclusionOver two thousand years ago, Aristotle concluded that excellence was the result of habit. Our research suggests the same. The HPI measures six habits that are reliably associated with high performance. They are also the six habits that the High Performance Institute currently includes in its training curriculum to millions of students around the world. Supplementing high performance training with a scientifically 
valid measurement tool is an important and much needed first step for the field of personal development. The High Performance Indicator reliably assesses the quality of an individual’s habits across six key areas associated with long- term success and positive life outcomes. Wise use of the HPI can help individuals, coaches, and organizations better understand their current performance, as well as provide useful guidance and feedback about how performance can be optimized in the future.
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